Clinical Studies

Cristofalo EA, Schanler RJ, Blanco CL, et al. “Randomized Trial of Exclusive Human Milk versus Preterm Formula Diets in Extremely Premature Infants.” The Journal of Pediatrics. December 2013;163(6):1592-1595 | doi: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2013.07.011

Abrams SA, Schanler RJ, Lee ML et al. “Greater mortality and morbidity in extremely preterm infants fed a diet containing cow milk protein products.” Breastfeeding Medicine June 2014; 9(6): 281-285 | doi:10.1089/bfm.2014.0024.

Hair A, et al. “Beyond Necrotizing Enterocolitis Prevention: Improving Outcomes with an Exclusive Human Milk–Based Diet.” Breastfeeding Medicine. March 2016; 11(2): 70-74 | doi:10.1089/bfm.2015.0134.

Additional Publications

Goldstein M. “The Value of Human Milk Access for Premature Infants.” Institute for Patient Access. December 2015.

Assad M, et al. “Decreased cost and improved feeding tolerance in VLBW infants fed an exclusive human milk diet.” Journal of Perinatology. 12 November 2015 | doi:10.1038/jp.2015.168.

Hair A, et al. “Human milk feeding supports adequate growth in infants < 1250 grams birth weight” BMC Research Notes. 13 November 2013; doi:10.1186/1756-0500-6-459.

Herrmann K, Carroll K. “An Exclusively Human Milk Diet Reduces Necrotizing Enterocolitis.” Breastfeeding Medicine 1 May 2014; 9(4): 184-190 | doi:10.1089/bfm.2013.0121.

Huston RK, Markell AM, McKulley EA, et al. “Decreasing Necrotizing Enterocolitis and Gastrointestinal Bleeding in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit: The Role of Donor Human Milk and Exclusive Human Milk Diet in Infants Less <= to 1500 g birth weight.” ICAN: Adult Child and Adolescent Nutrition. 20 August 2013;|doi:10.1186/1471-2431-13-127

Bertino E, Giuliani F, Baricco M, et al. “Benefits of donor milk in the feeding of preterm infants.” Early Hum Dev.October 2013; 89 Suppl 2:S3-6 | doi:10.1016/j.earlhumdev.2013.07.008.

Patel AL, Johnson TJ, Engstrom JL, et al. “Impact of Early Human Milk on Sepsis and Health Care Costs in Very Low Birth Weight Infants.” J Perinatol. July 2013; 33(7):514-9. | doi: 10.1038/jp.2013.2.

Underwood MA. “Human milk for the premature infant.” Pediatr Clin North Am. February 2013; 60(1):189-207 | doi:10.1016/j.pcl.2012.09.008.

Ganapathy V, Hay JW, Kim JH. “Costs of Necrotizing Enterocolitis and Cost-Effectiveness of Exclusively Human Milk-Based Products in Feeding Extremely Premature Infants.” Breastfeeding Medicine. February 2012; 7(1):29-37 | doi: 10.1089/bfm.2011.0002.

Policy Statement from the American Academy of Pediatrics. “Breastfeeding and the Use of Human Milk.” Pediatrics. 2012 | doi: 10.1542/peds.2011-3552.

Meier PP, Engstrom JL, Patel AL, et al.. “Improving the Use of Human Milk During and After the NICU Stay.” Clin Perinatol. March 2010; 37(1):217-45. | doi:10.1016/j.clp.2010.01.013.

Rogers SP, Hicks PD, Hamzo M, Veit LE, Abrams SA. “Continuous feedings of fortified human milk lead to nutrient losses of fat, calcium and phosphorous.” Nutrients. Mar 2010; 2(3):230-40. | doi: 10.3390/nu2030240.

Bhatia J. “Human milk and the premature infant.” Perinatology. 2007; 27, S71–S74 | doi:10.1038/

Boyd CA, Quigley MA and Brocklehurst P. “Donor breast milk versus infant formula for preterm infants: systematic review and meta-analysis.” Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed.. 2007; 92:3 F158-F159 | doi:10.1136/adc.2005.089490.

Bell EF. “Preventing necrotizing enterocolitis: what works and how safe?” Pediatrics. January 2005; 115(1):173-4 | doi: 10.1542/peds.2004-2360

Schanler RJ, Lau C, Hurst NM, Smith OE. “Randomized trial of donor human milk versus preterm formula as substitutes for mothers’ own milk in the feeding of extremely premature infants.” Pediatrics. August 2005; 116(2):400-6 | doi: 10.1542/peds.2004-1974.

McGuire W, Anthony MY. “Donor human milk versus formula for preventing necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm infants: systematic review.” Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed.. 2003; 88:F11-F14.

Bisquera JA, Cooper TR, Berseth CL. “Impact of Necrotizing Enterocolitis on Length of Stay and Hospital Charges in Very Low Birth Weight Infants.” Pediatrics. March 2002; 109(3):423-8 | doi:10.1542/peds.109.3.423.

Hanson LA, Korotova M. “The role of breastfeeding in the prevention of neonatal infection.” Semin Neonatology.2002; 7: 275-281.

Kosloske AM. “Breast Milk Decreases the Risk of Neonatal Necrotizing Enterocolitis.” Advances in Nutritional Research. 2001; 6: 123-137.

Schanler RJ, Hurst NM, Lau C. “The use of human milk and breastfeeding in premature infants.” Clin. Perinatol.1999; 26; 370-398.

Lucas A, Morley R, Cole TJ. “Randomised trial of early diet in preterm babies and later intelligence quotient.” BMJ. 28 Nov 1998; 317(7171): 1481–1487.

Hair A, et al. “Premature Infants 750–1,250g Birth Weight Supplemented with a Novel Human Milk-Derived Cream Are Discharged Sooner.” Breastfeeding Medicine. April 2016; 11(3): 133-137 | doi:10.1089/bfm.2015.0166.

Hair A, et al. “Beyond Necrotizing Enterocolitis Prevention: Improving Outcomes with an Exclusive Human Milk–Based Diet.” Breastfeeding Medicine. March 2016; 11(2): 70-74 | doi:10.1089/bfm.2015.0134.

Tabata M, et al. “Fortifier and Cream Improve Fat Delivery in Continuous Enteral Infant Feeding of Breast Milk.” Nutrients. 11 February 2015; 7(2), 1174-1183 | doi:10.3390/nu7021174.

Schanler RJ. “Fortified human milk: nature’s way to feed premature infants.” BMJ. 1998 Mar;14(1):5-11.

El-Mohandes AE, Picard MB, Simmens SJ, et al. “Use of Human milk in intensive care nursery decreases the incidence of nosocomial sepsis.” J Perinatol. 1997; 17: 30-34.

Lucas A, Fewtrell M, Morley R, et al. “Randomized outcome trial of human milk fortification and developmental outcome in preterm infants.” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. August 1996; 64(2):142-51.

Wang Y, Wu S. “The effect of exclusive breastfeeding on development and incidence of infections in infants.” J Hum Lact. 1996; 12: 27.

Dewey K, Heinig J, Nommsen-Rivers L. “Differences in morbidity between breast-fed and formula-fed infants.” J Pediatr. 1995; 126:696.

Lucas A, Cole TJ. “Breast milk and neonatal necrotising enterocolitis.” Lancet. 1990 Dec 22-29;336(8730):1519-23.

Cochi S, Fleming DW, Hightower AW, et al. “Primary invasive Haemophilus influenzae type b disease: a population-based assessment of risk factors.” J Pediatr.1986 Jun;108(6):887-96.

Narayanan I, Murthy NS, Prakash K, et al. “Randomised controlled trial of effect of raw and holder pasteurised human milk and of formula supplements on incidence of neonatal infection.” Lancet. 1984 Nov 17;2(8412):1111-3.

Narayanan I, Prakash K, Gujral VV “The value of human milk in the prevention of infection in the high-risk low-birth-weight infant.” J Pediatr. 1981 Sep;99(3):496-8.

Narayanan I, Prakash K, Bala S, et al. “Partial supplementation with expressed breast-milk for prevention of infection in low-birth-weight infants.” Lancet. 1980 Sep 13;2(8194):561-3.

Das BK, Mishra RN, Mishra OP, Bhargava V, Prakash A. “Comparative outcome of low birth weight babies.Indian Pediatr”. 1993 Jan;30(1):15-21.

Bharati P, Pal M, Bandyopadhyay M, Bhakta A, Chakraborty S, Bharati P. “Prevalence and causes of low birth weight in India”. Malays J Nutr 2011 Dec;17(3):301-13.

Arslanoglu S, Moro GE, Bellu R, Turoli D, De NG, Tonetto P, et al. “Presence of human milk bank is associated with elevated rate of exclusive breastfeeding in VLBW infants”. J Perinat Med 2013 Mar;41(2):129-31.

Cristofalo EA, Schanler RJ, Blanco CL, Sullivan S, Trawoeger R, Kiechl-Kohlendorfer U, et al. “Randomized Trial of Exclusive Human Milk versus Preterm Formula Diets in Extremely Premature Infants”. J Pediatr. 2013 Dec;163(6):1592-1595.

De NG, Berti M, De NM, Bertino E. “Early enteral feeding with human milk for VLBW infants”. J Biol Regul Homeost Agents 2012 Jul;26(3 Suppl):69-73.

Israel-Ballard K, Donovan R, Chantry C, Coutsoudis A, Sheppard H, Sibeko L, et al. “Flash-heat inactivation of HIV-1 in human milk: a potential method to reduce postnatal transmission in developing countries”. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2007 Jul 1;45(3):318-23.

Terpstra FG et al. “Antimicrobial and antiviral effect of high-temperature short-time (HTST) pasteurization applied to human milk”. Breastfeed Med. 2007 Mar;2(1):27-33.

Burton P, Kennedy K, Ahluwalia JS, Nicholl R, Lucas A, Fewtrell MS. “Randomized trial comparing the effectiveness of 2 electric breast pumps in the NICU”. J Hum Lact 2013 Aug;29(3):412-9.

Fewtrell MS, Lucas P, Collier S, Singhal A, Ahluwalia JS, Lucas A. “Randomized trial comparingthe efficacy of a novel manual breast pump with a standardelectric breast pump in mothers who delivered preterm infants”. Pediatrics 2001 Jun;107(6):1291-7.

Gransden WR, Webster M, French GL, Phillips I. “An outbreak of Serratia marcescens transmitted by contaminated breast pumps in a special care baby unit.” J Hosp Infect 1986 Mar;7(2):149-54.

Breast Pumps. US FDA, Heal. Cent. “Devices Radiol. Center for Devices and Radiological Health”; 2013

Janjindamai W, Thatrimontrichai A, Maneenil G, Puwanant M. “Soft Plastic Bag Instead of Hard Plastic Container for Long-term Storage of Breast Milk”. Indian J Pediatr 2013 Oct;80(10):809-13.

National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. “Donor breast milk banks: the operation of donor milk bank services”. NICE clinical guideline 93.

Thompson N, Pickler RH, Munro C, Shotwell J. “Contamination in expressed breast milk following breast cleansing”. J Hum Lact 1997 Jun;13(2):127-30.

Arnold LD. “A brief look at drip milk and its relation to donor human milk banking”. J Hum Lact 1997 Dec;13(4):323-4.

Prime DK, Garbin CP, Hartmann PE, Kent JC. “Simultaneous breast expression in breastfeeding women is more efficacious than sequential breast expression”. Breastfeed Med 2012 Dec;7(6):442-7.

Morera PS, Castellote Bargallo AI, Lopez Sabater MC. “Evaluation by high-performance liquid chromatography of the hydrolysis of human milk triacylglycerides during storage at low temperatures”. J Chromatogr A 1998 Oct 9;823(1-2):467-74.

CDC. “Proper Handlingand Storageof Human Milk. Recommendations. Breastfeeding”.

Simmer K, Hartmann B. “The known and unknowns of human milk banking”. Early Hum Dev 2009 Nov;85(11):701-4.

Hartmann BT, Pang WW, Keil AD, Hartmann PE, Simmer K. “Best practice guidelines for the operation of a donor human milk bank in an Australian NICU”. Early Hum Dev 2007 Oct;83(10):667-73.

ABM Clincial Protocol #8: “Human Milk Storage for home use for full term infants”. Revision March 2010. Breastfeeding Medicine. Vol. 5, No. 3. 2010.

Arnold LD. “The cost-effectiveness of using banked donor milk in the neonatal intensive care unit: prevention of necrotizing enterocolitis”. J Hum Lact 2002 May;18(2):172-7.